Carricante Vinyard with beautiful landscape of Etna Volcano

Etna’s Exclusive: Carricante

Exclusively grown on and around Mount Etna, Carricante is a variety that loves mountainous altitudes and is potentially one of Italy’s greatest cultivars.

The word Carricante refers to “loading up” the cart or the donkey with the copious amounts of grapes this variety can produce when left to it’s own devices. This ancient wine grape from eastern Sicily, is thought to have been growing on the volcanic slopes of Mount Etna for at least a thousand years. The Etna DOC, covers the slopes of Mount Etna, the 3,330 meter active volcano that dominates the northeastern corner of Sicily. This wine production zone arcs around the eastern side of the volcano, from Randazzo in the north to Santa Maria di Locodia in the south.

Soil Composition

Ages of volcanic and seismic activity have created soils just about as diverse as they come. Containing no fewer than 46 different lava types, the volcanic soils of Carricante vineyards feature strata of different geological origins and contribute unique flavors to the fruit. Etna’s volcanic soils contain a mixed pool of essential minerals and elements that are inherently imperative to growing high quality grapes. These minerals include Magnesium, Phosphorus, Sulfur, Silica, and Iron.

The steep terrain of a Mount Etna vineyard

The graduated topography creates a smooth spread of micro-terroirs, as the land climbs up from near-sea-level to more than 3,940 feet. The highest of Etna’s vineyards now rank among the highest in Italy (and even the world). Because of these micro-terroirs, the soil composition of Etna vineyards depends on which side of the volcano it is produced. To the north, volcanic soils mixed with white sand are found; while in the east there is mainly steep, precipitous soil (40%). The resulting low yields there bring exceptionally high-quality wines.
Experimenting with vineyard sites further and further up the volcano’s slopes, Etna wine producers are investigating the effects of the richer, blacker soils as well as the increase in altitude.

Carricante Grape


Carricante is a one-zone variety, as it is only found on the slopes of the Etna volcano, in the countryside around towns such as Viagrande, Randazzo, and others. In the nineteenth century attempts to transplant Carricante elsewhere on the island were made, but have not fared well. The extremely specific growing conditions required for Carricante vines to thrive make this grape a unique, exclusive variety.

Regional Variations


Most prominent area for Etna Rosso. The strong Northern sun exposure would usually be a disadvantage, but the presence of the Alcantara River and the Nebrodi Mountains a valley favorable for vineyard cultivation and the growth of high quality grapes. The northern border, is represented by the right bank of the Alcantara River to the town of Randazzo.

The terrain is volcanic and terraced. The ancient cultivation methods are what sustain the balance of the environment. The volcanic, sandy terrain is characterized by the stones generated by the disintegration of the lava from old volcano explosions. The ground changes continually, shallow and fertile at some points or deep with volcanic rock emerging in others.

Climate change is fast and unexpected in this area and is impacted by dramatic changes in temperature between day and night. Vines can only be cultivated by hand, with small non-invasive agricultural vehicles or by mule.

Etna Rosso Grape

Etna Bianco Grape

East & South-East

Renowned area for the production of Etna Bianco. The proximity to the sea, remarkable rainfall, and altitude allows for Eastern vineyards to develop mountainous wines with strong Nordic profiles. Due to these exceptionally high altitudes, some red berries have difficulty getting to full ripeness, allowing for powerful flavors not common in white varietals.

Characterized by the presence of mountainous reliefs that result from extinguished volcanic cones. These volcanic cones cause the soil to vary dramatically from other areas of Etna affected by different eruptions. The southern sun exposure also provides vines with ample sun for development.


The southern slope of Mount Etna houses the highest vineyards of the volcano, and perhaps of Europe, which in certain districts exceed altitudes of 1,000 meters. Towns of this side such as Adrano, Biancavilla, and Belpasso are areas where Nerello Mascalese is the most widespread vine.

More sheltered by the influences of the sea, this area is less influenced by the southern sun exposure than the south east. With soil that is a compilation of multiple eruptions from different time periods, the varietal characteristics vary dramatically. In most parts of the South zones, the soils were formed by the crumbling of one or more types of lava in different ages and by different eruptive materials such as lapilli, ash, and sands. The crumbling state and composition of the lava and eruptive materials have given the southern Etna very fine soil.

This is the least known wine-growing area of Etna, but is recently providing great viticultural surprises and may become an up-and-coming area.

Nerello Vineyard

Flavor Profile

Carricante is the main player in the DOC wines Etna Bianco and Etna Bianco Superiore, in which it can be blended with small percentages of other local white grapes such as Minella and Catarrato. High quality Etna Bianco wines are blends, a minimum 60 percent Carricante, or 80 percent for Etna Bianco Superiore. There are also monovarietal wines labeled with the name of the cultivar. A number of Carricantes are blended with small or large amounts of Chardonnay, which can help soften Carricante’s angular profile, but greatly changes that unique experience that it can deliver.

Primary - Grape Influences

Carricante, at roughly 146 hectares in 2009, is only the thirty-first most planted variety in Sicily, though almost one third of those vines are more than fifty years old. Carricante clusters are usually medium-large, cylindrical-conical, and long, with elliptical berries covered with little bloom. There are at least two clones, CR-7 and Regione Siciliana 2, and at least two known biotypes (simply called A and B) that have been studied. Neither is particularly resistant to common vine diseases. Most producers try planting selections of old vines whenever possible.
Commonly alberello-trained bush vines, well-adapted Carricante responds well to the high diurnal temperature variations that characterize the climate around Mt. Etna. The grapes ripen slowly and steadily through their long growing season, retaining their trademark high acidity well into September. In cooler seasons, Carricante grapes can still be seen on vines even into early October.

"Carricante is described as very refined and pure in mineral aromas and racy lemony flavors, complicated by aniseed, green apple, orange flower, chamomile and unripe apricot."


From almost anywhere on Etna’s slopes, looking eastward will reveal just how much light the glinting Mediterranean reflects back up onto the vines. Local growers make much of this effect, which is similar to those reported around Lake Geneva and along the Mosel. It helps to ripen the grapes more completely, even at cooler, higher altitudes. Ripeness is almost never a concern in Sicily, famous for its hot, bright, persistent sunshine. But Etna’s higher slopes are almost the only place on the island where temperatures fall sufficiently low to cause concern for ripeness.
When tended to properly, it yields wines of great longevity with a very intense mineral character. Carricante thrives on the volcanic slopes of Etna, clasping crooked crags where little else can flourish.

Secondary - Fermentation Influences

Carricante wines are characterized by low potassium, very high total acidity and very low pH due to high malic acid concentrations. For this reason, it is necessary to ensure malolactic transformation, something that Sicilians already knew in the eighteenth century. Etna vintners used to barrel-age Carricante wines on their less so that malolactic fermentation would kick in and soften the wines’ sharp acidic edge. This is also why many producers choose to harvest it as late as possible (late September or early October).
The berries are often selected and placed in small cases to be transported whole to the winery where they are destemmed and left at a temperature of below 9°C in stainless steel vats for 24 hours. After pressing and clarification, the fermentation takes place at a temperature of 18°C in used barrels of 225 liters for at least 2 weeks, Batonnage (lees stirring) for 8 months, and bottling the following June.
If harvested too early, the acidity is all too apparent in the wine, but can sometimes countered by lees contact and malolactic fermentation and/or partial barrel aging.

Wine Style

A great Carricante is best described as a dry Riesling look-alike, when five to ten years old, it expresses very obvious flinty, diesel-fuel aromas just as Riesling does. It is very refined and pure in its graceful mineral aromas and racy, lemony flavors, complicated by aniseed, green apple, orange flower, chamomile, and unripe apricot. It is one of only a handful of Italian white wines that age well, benefitting from 10 years or more. It’s penetrating aromas, saline flavors, and extremely high acidity are something not everyone gets used to, but those who do are usually hooked for life.


  • 2016: Heady stone fruit, Spanish broom, and Mediterranean brush aromas release within a few swirls around the glass. The vibrant palate delivers green apple, lemon, tangerine, and white peach flavors framed by crisp acidity. Nice length and a hint of ginger that caps the finish.
  • 2015: This opens with aromas suggesting aromatic herb, hay, yellow flower, and a light balsamic note.  The bright, restrained palate offers lime, lemon peel, and sage while a mineral note signals the close.
  • 2014: Initially rather shy, this eventually reveals delicate scents of fragrant flower, orchard fruit, and a whiff of citrus. The linear palate is a bit austere, offering yellow apple skin, lime, and a mineral note alongside firm acidity.
  • 2013: Elegant and structured, this opens with delicate aromas of Spanish broom, pear, and Mediterranean herb. The linear, vibrant palate delivers juicy green apple, creamy pear, and citrus alongside an energizing mineral and crisp acidity. This will continue to develop. Drink through 2020.
  • 2012: Offers heady aromas of Spanish Broom, linden blossom and white stone fruit. The bright palate offers yellow apple unripe peach, lemon zest, and mineral alongside refreshing acidity.
  • 2011: Opens with aromas of yellow flower, acacia, Mediterranean herb, and just a slight whiff of petrol. The palate delivers mature green apple, citrus, mineral, oregano, and aniseed balanced by bright acidity.
  • 2010: An attractive fragrance of white flower, stone fruit, apple, and a whiff of smoke opens this linear wine. This bright palate offers dried citrus, Golden Delicious apple and mineral alongside brisk acidity.
  • 2009: Intense aromas of Spanish broom, lychee, beeswax, pear, and a hint of petrol lead the nose. The multifaceted palate delivers citrus, green apple, stone fruit, mineral, and dried herb alongside firm acidity. This compelling wine continuously evolves in the glass.
  • 2008: A fresh and pungent wine with crisp aromas of kiwi and stone fruit framed by focused mineral etchings.
Carricante Vinyard

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